Salut mes amis !
“China’s policy for Tibetan monasteries, first introduced in 1962, provides that all monasteries are supposed to be run by monks – under close governmental supervision, but with only indirect involvement of officials. The policy was abandoned during the Cultural Revolution (from 1966 to 1979 in Tibet), when almost all monasteries were closed and many were physically destroyed.”
The turning of Thrangu, Akong and Khenpo Karthar Rinpoches.
“The policy allowing nominal self-rule of monasteries was reinstated in the early 1980s and had been upheld ever since. China’s constitution guarantees freedom of religious belief, but control over religious activities of ethnic minority groups such as Tibetans and Uighurs has always been markedly more severe.”
The CCP’s recognition of Ogyen Trinley Dorje as 17th Karmapa.
“Under the previous policy, all places of worship, including Tibetan monasteries, have until now been administered by a structure called the ‘Democratic Management Committee.’ Although the nomination and selection of the committee members are controlled by government and party officials (and rigid political constraints are imposed on the nominees), the committees were comprised of monks who had at least been elected by their own community.”
“The new system now requires an unelected ‘Management Committee’– also referred to as zhusi danwei/gongzuozu(‘monastic government work-unit’)– to be established in every monastery, with up to 30 lay officials stationed in each monastery, depending on the size of the institution, according to a February 15, 2012 article in the government-run Global Times. The new ‘Management Committees’ will run the monasteries and will have authority over the previous ‘Democratic Management Committees,’ which will now be responsible for rituals and other matters.
The new arrangement is referred to as ‘the combination of management by administration with self-rule’ in monasteries and means that ‘officials are selected and sent to manage the monastery together with the monks.’ In monasteries that are at ‘grassroots level,’ the administration will be in the hands of officials from the local village-level organizations of the government or party.
The new system of cadre-supervised monasteries is the result of a research project initiated in 2008 by the United Front Work Department, the agency of the CCP in charge of religion and nationality issues. The research was initiated as an ’emergency response project’ by a team of experts in Beijing following widespread unrest in Tibetan areas in 2008, according to an August 26, 2011 article by Gong Xuezeng, a professor at China’s Central Party School.
In November 2011, the authorities began establishing the ‘Management Committees’ in the 1,787 monasteries that are allowed to operate in the TAR. The stated objectives of the new management scheme are:
‘to promote lasting political stability in the TAR and other Tibetan areas,’
to ‘establish harmonious monasteries,’ and
to ensure that ‘monks and nuns have the freedom to perform their religious rituals.’
However, according to Gong’s article, the temples will have to ‘rectify their religious style,’ though the meaning of this is unclear.
The rationale for the new system is explained in official documents as ‘enhancing social management’ in temples. This is seen as developing an underlying objective established in 1994 which aimed to ‘adapt Tibetan Buddhism to socialism.’ The new theory argues that since monks are members of society as well as monks, their institutions should be run by social forces, meaning party and government organizations. As a result, in the new system, besides the party cadres stationed within monasteries, numerous local government offices at each level will have day-to-day responsibility for directly managing different aspects of Tibetan monastic life. Twenty-four government organs, including the offices of public security, foreign affairs, and justice, are listed in regulations issued in Aba (Ngaba in Tibetan) prefecture in 2009 as involved in managing local monasteries.”
Ogyen Trinley Dorje actually agreed to this last year when he recognized Traleg Rinpoche’s reincarnation.